In every human society, there is an effort continually tending to confer on one part the height of power and happiness, and to reduce the other to the extreme of weakness and misery. The intent of good laws is to oppose this effort, and to diffuse their influence universally and equally. But men generally abandoned the care of their most important concerns to the uncertain prudence and discretion of those whose interest it is to reject the best and wisest institutions; and it is not till they have been led into a thousand mistakes in matters the most essential to their lives and liberties, and are weary of suffering, that they can be induced to apply a remedy to the evils with which they are oppressed. It is then they begin to conceive and acknowledge the most palpable truths which, from their very simplicity, commonly escape vulgar minds, incapable of analysing objects, accustomed to receive impressions, without distinction, and to be determined rather by the opinions of others than by the result of their own examination.

  If we look into history we shall find that laws, which are, or ought to be, conventions between men in a state of freedom. have been, for the most part the work of the passions of a few, or the consequences of a fortuitous or temporary necessity; not dictated by a cool examiner of human nature, who knew how to collect in one point the actions of a multitude, and had this only end in view, the greatest happiness of the greatest number. Happy are those few nations who have not waited till the slow succession of human vicissitudes should, from the extremity of evil, produce a transition to good; but by prudent laws have facilitated the progress from one to the other! And how great are the obligations due from mankind to that philosopher, who, from the obscurity of his closet, had the courage to scatter among the multitude the seeds of useful truths, so long unfruitful!

  The art of printing has diffused the knowledge of those philosophical truths, by which the relations between sovereigns and their subjects, and between nations are discovered. By this knowledge commerce is animated, and there has sprung up a spirit of emulation and industry, worthy of rational beings. These are the produce of this enlightened age; but the cruelty of punishments, and the irregularity of proceedings in criminal cases, so principal a part of the legislation, and so much neglected throughout Europe, has hardly ever been called in question. Efforts, accumulated through many centuries, have never yet been exposed by ascending to general principles; nor has the force of acknowledged truths been ever opposed to the unbounded licentiousness of ill-directed power, which has continually produced so many authorised examples of the most unfeeling barbarity. Surely, the groans of the weak, sacrificed to the cruel ignorance and indolence of the powerful, the barbarous torments lavished, and multiplied with useless severity, for crimes either not proved, or in their nature impossible, the filth and horrors of a prison, increased by the most cruel tormentor of the miserable, uncertainty, ought to have roused the attention of those whose business is to direct the opinions of mankind.

  The immortal Montesquieu has but slightly touched on this subject. Truth, which is eternally the same, has obliged me to follow the steps of that great man; but the studious part of mankind, for whom I write, will easily distinguish the superstructure from the foundation. I shall be happy if, with him, I can obtain the secret thanks of the obscure and peaceful disciples of reason and philosophy, and excite that tender emotion in which sensible minds sympathise with him who pleads the cause of humanity.



第一版前言 - 来自《美国宪法概论》

本书意在完成一项异常艰巨的任务——一部简明的美国宪法法纲要。宪法法是一个特别活跃的领域。前些年里,两位合众国首席大法官分别给两届颇不相同的最高法院打上了自己的烙印,这就是沃伦法院和伯格法院。当我们把本书付印时,伦奎斯特法院时代开始了。  无论所讨论的问题是司法审查(如诉讼资格和可由法院审理性),还是对联邦制的新的尊重情绪,我们的努力目标都是描绘出最高法院的新趋向。在正当程序领域,在第十四条修正案平等保护条款标题下产生的日益复杂而重要的法律中,我们也本着同样的精神行事。在第一条修正案领域,在该修正……去看看 

第三章:“这就是民主!” - 来自《卡斯特罗传》

(一)  一九五八年十二月的最后一天,卡斯特罗在奥连特省他的兄长拉蒙家中度过了元旦(这时他的父亲已去世,母亲仍在)。半夜他被游击队员的朝天鸣枪所惊醒,手下人向他报告说巴蒂斯塔已出逃。他立即起身前往省会圣地亚哥,和联合阵线其他派别商量接收权力的事宜。  一月二日,临时政府总统乌鲁希在圣地亚哥宣誓就职,任命米罗·卡迪那为临时政府总理。米罗是原哈瓦那大学法学教授,曾教过卡斯特罗。总统正式任命卡斯特罗为古巴武装部队总司令。同时他还宣布恢复一九四0年宪法,总统选举将在一年半以内举行。  古巴革命胜利后,一月七日……去看看 

第四章 我与毛泽东,江青和李钠 - 来自《红墙内外》

韩桂馨,一名普通的劳动妇女。手背上露着青筋,目光善良柔和,身上弥漫着恬静纯朴的神气。我们很熟,她讲话总是那么从容朴实、显出“过来人”的宽容和威实。   19何年9月30日,我十六岁,转为中共正式党员。几天后。傅连漳同志找我谈了一次话。   “韩桂馨同志,李若要调走了,你去接她的班,到主席身边工作。你愿意去吗?”   “愿意。”我很激动,感觉到组织上的信任。   “那好。主席现在住神泉堡。陕北形势好转,江青同志已经来到河东接李的,你随她一起去吧。孩子到了上学年纪,上不了学,你不是高小毕业吗?要帮助她识字读书。”傅连漳……去看看 

第36章 - 来自《至高利益》

摸准了钟明仁对国际工业园的污染有所认识后,李东方准备彻底着手解决这个 问题。他把一份打印好的材料递到钱凡兴手上,“这是我和家国等同志经过实地调 研后拟定的头一批关闭企业名单,主要是些电镀企业,你先看一看,有没有漏掉哪 个企业?”   钱凡兴看了看名单,没对名单发表什么意见,只问:“看来是准备关园了?”   李东方说:“有关材料我已经送到钟书记那里去,钟书记可能正在看。”   钱凡兴想了想:“钟书记态度有没有变化?有没有透露关园的口风?”   李东方眉头一皱,不悦地道:“钱市长,钟书记没态度,没口风,这园就不关 了是不是?你赶……去看看 

第07章 - 来自《省委书记》

31  大山子机关旧楼小礼堂里,前来参加座谈的下岗工人代表早已到齐。因为潘书记迟迟没到,座谈会还没开起来。组织会议的工作人员焦急万分。工人代表们却异样地保持着沉默,神色一律十分严峻地安坐在各自的位置上等待着。开发区一位姓姜的副主任解释道:“对不起……潘书记在路上被耽搁住了……他马上就到……” 工人代表们却面面相觑,不做任何表态。   马扬一赶到机关,就让丁秘书去查了一下第一批下岗的人员中,到底有多少省市级的劳模。“接到您的电话,我马上让有关方面用电脑搜索了一下,列入这一批下岗名单的省市级劳模,只有一……去看看