Of Pardons.


  As punishments become more mild, clemency and pardon are less necessary. Happy the nation in which they will be considered as dangerous. Clemency, which has often been deemed a sufficient substitute for every other virtue in sovereigns, should be excluded in a perfect legislation, where punishments are mild, and the proceedings in criminal cases regular and expeditious. This truth will seem cruel to those who live in countries where, from the absurdity of the laws and the severity of punishments, pardons and the clemency of the prince are necessary. It is indeed one of the noblest prerogatives of the throne, but, at the same time, a tacit disapprobation of the laws. Clemency is a virtue which belongs to the legislator, and not to the executor of the laws; a virtue which ought to shine in the code, and not in private judgment. To shew mankind that crimes are sometimes pardoned, and that punishment is not the necessary consequence, is to nourish the flattering hope of impunity, and is the cause of their considering every punishment inflicted as an act of injustice and oppression. The prince in pardoning gives up the public security in favour of an individual, and, by his ill-judged benevolence, proclaims a public act of impunity. Let, then, the executors of the laws be inexorable, but let the legislator be tender, indulgent, and humane. He is a wise architect who erects his edifice on the foundation of self-love, and contrives that the interest of the public shall be the interest of each individual, who is not obliged, by particular laws and irregular proceedings, to separate the public good from that of individuals, and erect the image of public felicity on the basis of fear and distrust; but, like a wise philosopher, he will permit his brethren to enjoy in quiet that small portion of happiness, which the immense system, established by the first cause, permits them to taste on this earth, which is but a point in the universe.

  A small crime is sometimes pardoned if the person offended chooses to forgive the offender. This may be an act of good nature and humanity, but it is contrary to the good of the public: for although a private citizen may dispense with satisfaction for the injury he has received, he cannot remove the necessity of example. The right of punishing belongs not to any individual in particular, but to society in general, or the sovereign. He may renounce his own portion of this right, but cannot give up that of others.



第九章 亲王宴请 - 来自《共和国密使》

苏发努冯理了理漂亮的八字胡须,说:“是的,您首先应该称呼我主席或者同志。不过,在我的人民面前么……”   年轻的阿努冯王子说:”我有两个榜样,一个是毛岸英,还有一个是雷锋……”1965年4月11日,老挝爱国战线党第二次代表大会闭幕了。   为答谢中国党和越南党对老挝民族解放斗争的支援,苏发努冯亲王特地举行招待会,宴请我驻桑怒工作组和越南顾问团的同志们。   下午5点,段苏权将军一行来到“宴会厅”。说它是宴会厅,其实是一间大一些的茅草房,它掩映在群山环抱,绿树丛生的山坳之中,别有一番情趣。   能在这样的“宴会厅”作客……去看看 

第二辑 乌鸦的聒噪(二) - 来自《黑乌鸦与折断的日子》

在噩梦边缘徘徊的贾平凹  早就在网上看见了贾平凹"原本可以在1999年即可写出,却偏偏不能完成"的新作品《怀念狼》的有关议论,仅从题目上的确可以给人以一种宽阔的想象,很有些韵味。因为这是"我新千年里的第一本书"。但是,在看完了全书之后,我还是有点失望了,贾平凹一再地陷入了几年来他一直无法逃避的噩梦里,他在退化,因为权力、金钱和世俗的力量的吸引和同化?因为名望带来的光辉已经遮住了作品本身应该有的光芒?他在不断失去自己的活力和灵性,他离我们的世界(和他自己真实的内心世界)越来越远了,他粗暴地割裂了自己与他人之间仅存……去看看 

从“盲流”正名为“农民工” - 来自《中国弱势群体》

“民工潮”是20世纪80年代兴起的。但据考证,在以“洋务运动”为代表的晚清工业化初期,梁启超主办的《时务报》就有记载:“中国工人伙多,有用之不竭之势。……上海如此,他处尤为便宜,盖该口工价已较内地丰厚,致远方男女来谋食者日繁有徒,虽离家不计也。”估计,20年代未30年代初,离乡进城的农民至少有1500万人吕新雨:《“民工潮”的问题意识》,《读书》,2003年第10期。,成为马克思所说的产业后备军,初具规模了。  建国以后,城乡分治,即使推进工业化,也很少向农村招工。相反,城市的劳动力还不能自行消化,于是有不止一次的动员市民“上山下乡……去看看 

Lecture 10 : Mentions of Belligerents on Land - 来自《国际法(英文版)》

The Brussels Conference failed to solve a number of questions of modern origin which have arisen as to the status of the civil population of a country when, by rising en masse, they take upon themselves military duty in resistance to an invader. The trenchant German scheme, which was submitted to the Conference, failed to command support, and a number of rules, which were not open to the same objections as those which the German delegate proposed, were not universally accepta……去看看 

第六章 知觉瞬间:视觉理论 - 来自《惊人的假说》

“心理学是一门很不能令人满意的学科。”——沃尔夫冈·科勒尔(Wolfgong Kohler)图标记忆和工作记忆的衰减时间可能是相当短暂的。我们对引起意识的各种处理过程所需的时间了解多少呢?回忆一下第二章的内容就知道,某些认知学家喜欢把大脑的活动看成是执行计算的过程,他们认为,引起意识的不是计算本身而是计算的结果。有些人声称,某些脑的活动并不能达到意识水平,除非它们持续的时间超过某个最短的时间。如果这种活动较弱,这一时间可能要长达半秒。单是为了指导我们探索意识的神经相关物,就需要我们了解与单个“知觉瞬间”(moment……去看看